Xawery Franciszek hr. Orłowski


The biographical note was published in 1979 in the 26th volume of the Polish Biographical Dictionary (available in electronic format at the website of the „Internet Polish Biographical Dictionary).


Xawery Franciszek hr. Orłowski (1862-02-01 – 1926-10-27), a Russian and Polish diplomat. Born on 1 February in Jarmolińce in Proskurów poviat, he was the son of Aleksander (1816–1893), the owner of Jarmolińce real estate, an officer of the Russian Imperial Guards, and his second wife, Klementyna de Talleyrand-Périgord (1841–1881). As a young man, Orłowski maintained well-known racing stables in Warsaw. Later he inherited the Jarmolińce key, and he also had a property in Bavaria (Schloss Winkel). In the years 1897–1903 he stayed in Munich, initially as an attaché, and from 1901 as a honorary counsel of the Russian legation. In 1903 he obtained a confirmation of the title of a count in Bavaria. During the Russian-Japanese was of 1904–1905, Orłowski was a plenipotentiary of the Russian Red Cross and the head of the St. Wincenty à Paulo Warsaw-Łódź sanitary branch, bringing aid to Poles fighting on the frontline. In 1907 he was among the founders of a conservative faction in Ruthenia (the Polish National Faction of Kiev, Volhynia and Podole governship) and he sat on its Main Council. In the period 1908–10 he was a member of the Russian Council of State, appointed in May 1908 to replace the previous representative of Podole, Wacław Jełowicki, who resigned. In the Council of State he belonged to the Polish Circles Union.


After the outbreak of WW1, Orłowski left for Paris, where he became involved in political activities targeting French authorities, particularly as regards the issue of future eastern borders of Poland. During the Paris Peace Conference in spring 1919, owing to his connections in the diplomatic spheres, he helped priest Ferdynand Machay and highland landowners accompanying him, who arrived in Paris to lobby for incorporation of Spisz and Orawa into Poland, in being granted an audience with the President of the United States, Wilson. In May of the same year, he appeared on the side of other representatives of Polish landowners from Ukraine before Ignacy Paderewski to address the issue of the southern-eastern border. Having later joined foreign service, Orłowski became the first Polish envoy to Brazil (from 27 May 1920 to September 1921). Then for four years he was an envoy of the Republic of Poland to Madrid (from September 1921 to October 1924). At the same time from 13 May 1922 to 31 May 1923 he represented Poland in Portugal. According to memories of Jan Drohojowski and Walerian Meysztowicz, Orłowski was distinguished by highly developed sense of humour, which sometimes brought on him troubles in his political career. He died on 27 October 1926 in Versailles. He was a honorary Knight of Malta, a knight of several other orders, including among others, Bavarian Order of Saint George, Russian Order of Saint Anna of the second class, the Order of Saint Vladimir of the fourth class, the Pontifical Equestrian Order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr, the knight of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, and many others.
In the matrimony entered in 1912 in Paris with an Argentinian, Ignazia del Carill (1878–1950), with whom he was later separated, he had two children: Maria (born in 1913), married to Jan Okęcki, and Karol Stefan (born in 1914), a former officer of the Polish Army, living in Argentine, the author and publisher of the book titled „Searches. Studies in old Poland”.


A brother of Orłowski, Mieczysław (born on 14 August 1865 in Jarmolińce, died on 19 May 1929 in Samoreau) was an adjutant of General Józef Haller, and after WW1 he was a honorary attaché at the Legation of the Republic of Poland in Paris.


Borkowski, Almanach; Orłowski K., Poszukiwania. Studia o dawnej Polsce [Searches. Studies in old Poland] , Buenos-Aires–New York 1968 I 24–5; Pułaski K., Kronika polskich rodów szlacheckich Podola, Wołynia i Ukrainy [A chronicle of Polish noble families of Podole, Volhynia, and Ukraine], Brody 1911 pp. 146–7; Uruski, XIII 10, 11; Almanac de Gotha, 1898–1903, Gotha 1898–1903; Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych. Centrala i placówki w 1921 r. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Headquarters and outposts], W. 1921 p. 25; „Rocznik Służby Zagranicznej RP” [Annals of the Foreign Service of the Republic of Poland] 1938, pp. 81, 123; – [Zieliński J.], Kułakowski M., Roman Dmowski w świetle listów i wspomnień [Roman Dmowski in the light of letters and memories], London 1972 II; – Archiwum Polityczne Ignacego Paderewskiego [Political Archives of Ignacy Paderewski], Wr. 1974 II; [Drohojowski J.], Jana Drohojowskiego wspomnienia dyplomatyczne [Diplomatic memories of Jan Drohojowski], Kr. 1969; „Dziennik Urzędowy MSZ RP” [Official Journal of the MFA of the Republic of Poland] 1923 p. 103; Machay F., Moja droga do Polski [My road to Poland], Kr. 1938 pp. 224, 225, 228; Meysztowicz W., Poszło z dymem [Gone with the smoke], London 1973 p. 170; Milewski H., Siedemdziesiąt lat wspomnień (1885–1925) [Seventy years of memories (1885-1925)], P. 1930; – „Kraj” 1907 No. 29 p. 12, No. 32 p. 13, No. 46 p. 11; „Kur. Warsz.” 1926 No. 298 evening edition p. 9; „Świat” 1908 No. 22 p. 14 (photo); – AAN: reference number MSZ 3650, 4035.


Alina Szklarska-Lohmannowa